Water Supply and Sanitation in India
The Wikipedia (free Encyclopedia) reports:
Drinking water supply and sanitation in India continue to be inadequate, despite longstanding efforts by the various levels of government and communities at improving coverage. The level of investment in water and sanitation, albeit low by international standards, has increased during the 2000s. Access has also increased significantly. For example, in 1980 rural sanitation coverage was estimated at 1% and reached 21% in 2008. Also, the share of Indians with access to improved sources of water has increased significantly from 72% in 1990 to 88% in 2008. At the same time, local government institutions in charge of operating and maintaining the infrastructure are seen as weak and lack the financial resources to carry out their functions. In addition, only two Indian cities have continuous water supply and an estimated 69% of Indians still lack access to improved sanitation facilities.
A number of innovative approaches to improve water supply and sanitation have been tested inIndia, in particular in the early 2000s. These include demand-driven approaches in rural water supply since 1999, community-led total sanitation, public-private partnerships to improve the continuity of urban supply in Karnataka, and the use of micro-credit to women in order to improve access to water.
In 2010, the UN estimated based on Indian statistics that 626 million people practice open defecation. In June 2012 Minister of Rural Development Jairam Ramesh statedIndiais the world’s largest “open air toilet”.
According to Indian norms, access to improved water supply exists if at least 40 liters/capita/day of safe drinking water are provided within a distance of 1.6 km or 100 meter of elevation difference, to be relaxed as per field conditions. There should be at least one pump per 250 persons.
Water Supply Continuity:
Challenges. As of 2010, only two cities inIndia – Thiruvananthapuram and Kota – get continuous water supply.
In 2005 none of the 35 Indian cities with a population of more than one million distribute water for more than a few hours per day, despite generally sufficient infrastructure. Owing to inadequate pressure people struggle to collect water even when it is available. According to the World Bank, none have performance indicators that compare with average international standards. A 2007 study by the Asian Development Bank showed that in 20 cities the average duration of supply was only 4.3 hours per day. None of the cities had continuous supply.
In Delhi residents receive water only a few hours per day because of inadequate management of the distribution system. This results in contaminated water and forces households to complement a deficient public water service at prohibitive ‘coping’ costs; the poor suffer most from this situation.
Green Biz – published September 4, 2013:
UNICEF reports that water-borne diseases such as cholera, gastroenteritis and diarrhea inIndia are responsible for $600 million in medical bills and lost productivity per year, but it could get worse. The national government estimates that demand for clean water will rise 50 percent by 2031 if current delivery models stay the same. According to the World Bank, 220 million Indians will migrate to cities over the same 20-year period.
About.com – India Travel:
Most of India’s tap water is unfit for consumption. Restaurants will offer treated drinking water, but it’s advisable for visitors to always drink bottled water. Bottled water inIndia comes in two types – packaged drinking water and pure mineral water such as Bisleri brand. There is a difference between them. Packaged drinking water is water that has been treated and made healthy for drinking, while mineral water has been obtained naturally as its underground source and hygienically bottled. Both are safe to drink, although mineral water is better as its chemical free.
Arctic Blue Waters can safely provide pure Arctic water in bulk and can transport it by food-grade ships to India for bottling hygienically for distribution to the retail market.
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